Which Of These Ads Best Conforms To Joyner’s Standards Of, “An Irresistible Offer”?

Photo by Fallon Michael on Pexels.com

The Irresistible Offer: How to Sell Your Product or Service in 3 Seconds or Less, is a book written by Mark Joyner. It tells you how to create the ideal advertisement. In order to do so, you must follow the three components of The Irresistible Offer:

  1. A High ROI Offer
  2. A Touchstone
  3. Believability

The first part of The Irresistible Offer is the ROI. ROI stands for “return on investment.” A high ROI offer would be an offer that gives you a lot for the money you pay. The second part of The Irresistible Offer is a touchstone. A touchstone is composed of four parts. Here’s what we are selling, how much it will cost, what’s in it for you, and why you should trust us. The last part of The Irresistible Offer is believability. Believability is how believable the ad is. Now that we have a brief explanation of what The Irresistible Offer is, let’s see how well each of the following commercials follows it. The commercials are of the following:

  1. M&M’s
  2. TRS-80 Computer
  3. Commodore IBM PC
  4. American Express

M&Ms (1957)

Provided By M&M’s Comerciais

The following commercial will be critiqued with the checklist of requirements for The Irresistible Offer, starting with the ROI. Unfortunately, this commercial does not say the price of the product. With this inconvenience, I cannot tell you if the ROI is high or not. The touchstone is incomplete, although it’s very close to being complete. It shows the product they are selling, but not how much it costs. It says what’s in it for you, the chocolate candy will not melt in your hand. Although, the candy coating will probably get sticky after a while, it is advertising that it won’t melt as fast as regular chocolate. It shows why you should trust them; the man in the commercial shows a demonstration of the chocolate not melting. In my point of view, I would concur that it’s just on the line of believable. There’s nothing untrustworthy about this video. I think the description was very well done. I believe The Irresistible Offer should mention description, because a well-done description tempts me to buy something more.

Radio Shack TRS-80 computer, (1980)

Provided by zipherbug

Seeing this commercial, it sounds like a great product with many uses. The price of this computer was $399 in its time. This was a good price, and the ROI was definitely high. As for the touchstone, it does say what they are selling (a computer), how much it will cost (estimated, $400), what’s in it for you (they listed the benefits of the computer), and why you should trust them (they showed people using the product). The last thing is believability, which in my opinion, made the standard. The demonstrations and uses listed seemed perfectly believable. Although this isn’t part of The Irresistible Offer, but they also did a great job with the advertisements description.

Commodore, (1987, Australia)

Provided by Ye Old Movie Vault

This computer was being sold for $1395. For a computer like this, it was reasonable. Its not particularly expensive, nor particularly cheap. It does not come with the monitor, although there is a deal to buy it for only $100. It seems to me that the ROI is average, and not high, not low. As for the touchstone, each requirement was filled. They were selling a computer. They told us how much it cost, $1395, or $1495 (with the monitor). They told us what’s in it for us, and why we should trust them. Technically it matched the touchstone, but there were not many things in it for us. In addition, there was a lack of description in the advertisement.

American Express (late 1960’s)

Provided by robatsea2009

In this commercial, the ROI is unknown since it does not mention the price of the card. For the touchstone, they showed what they were selling. Although, it was difficult to see and they never mentioned the price. There was one main benefit showed: the ability to easily make transactions in many situations. That part was entertaining and well done. It did not, however, advertise the benefits well. The situations used in the video showed why we could trust them. Although, the issue with trust is that we have to take their word for. It was as believable as an ad focused around entertainment could be.

At the end of the critiques, one advertisement definitely stood out to me. The Radio Shack TRS-80 computer (1980) seemed like it filled each requirement very well. If I lived back then, I probably would have purchased one. It seemed very reasonably priced, especially considering you don’t need to purchase a monitor too. Conveniently, instead of purchasing a monitor, it would hook up to your TV. In my opinion, hitting the basics and filling the requirements for The Irresistible Offer is not difficult. In fact, it is actually quite common in advertisements. However, there are some commercials that go the extra mile, and really perfect it.

Lesson 110, Business I @zbelles


Compare Paul’s Concept Of God’s Sovereignty In Romans 9:1-23 With Justin’s Concept Of God’s Sovereignty In Chapter XLIII: Responsibility Asserted

Photo by Todd Trapani on Pexels.com

God’s sovereignty has been a subject of debate as long as time itself. This debate goes on between churches, Christians, atheists, and everything in between. Two figures have written on this subject, Paul the Apostle and Justin the martyr. These two may not be the ultimate source on this subject, but they definitely did discuss it. In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans, mainly in chapter 9 verses 1-23, Paul talks about his view on Gods sovereignty. At a later time period, Justin argues the same point in his work, Apology chapter XLIII. Although they both had similar beliefs, each varies a little from the other.

Paul talked about how God governs the whole earth and can provide for all of the needs of His people. He states that God is in control and is sovereign in many ways. He bases all of his teaching off of the doctrines that Jesus introduced to the world at that time. From his teachings we can conclude that God is in control. That He will help us and guide us through our lives, if we trust in Him. Justin stated a very similar argument in his work Apology. He starts by explaining that the world does not run by fate, and that nothing is really predestined. He tells us that if it was, we would have no responsibilities for our actions and decisions. He also states that there would also be no purpose to life. Then he goes on to explain that there are always consequences for our actions. For those who do good receive worthy rewards, those who do evil receive the opposite. Thus, he tells us because there is order, there must be a force or intelligence behind it.

These two have very similar views on this subject and are both great writers. The main difference that I got from reading from these two was that Paul tended to lean towards the ultimate control in this section. Also, that God is in some form of active control. Justin didn’t say that God was not in active control but he told use through his writings that God made an order and oversees the whole process. These two great Christian writers effectually said the same thing in there own words. To the point that many differences are nitpicking on style, not facts.

To sum this all up, Paul really told us that God is sovereign. Even though He does not govern every act, He does control many of the aspects in our lives. Paul also tell us that He has the power to protect and provide for His people. Justin really went into the order of our lives in regard to choices and consequences. He also sends the message that God set up the world to run that way. The impression that I got from these writings was that God is sovereign, and He created the world. In addition, each writer went into different parts of how God works in our lives.

Lesson 110, Western Literature @zbelles

Comparing And Contrasting The Ways Fungi “Eat,” & Defining A Chordate

Photo by Visually Us on Pexels.com

(1) Compare and contrast the ways that fungi “eat” with the ways that animals digest, and absorb their food.

Do not refer to hunting, or methods of catching prey. Instead, focus on what the animal and/or fungal body does after it has secured a food source. Fungi are decomposers and modify dead things into a humus. Which is rich in the nutrients that plant uses as a food. In addition to this, fungi colonize indicating that they digest on the outside. For animals, this is their development that makes their digestive system different from a fungi’s. It starts with embryonic layers after fertilization zygotes divide, the formation of gastrulation-ball folds in on its self. Cells then within each layer develop into organs, and then creating an organ system. Therefore, indicating that the animals digestive system is on the inside of their body and not on the outside of their bodies in contrast to the fungi.

(2) What is a chordate?

Chordates are animals in the phylum chordate. These animals have a notochord some point in their lives. These animals also have a dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits or clefts, and a muscular post anal tail. How are vertebrates different from chordates? Vertebrates are a subgroup of chordates. Also meaning that all vertebrates are chordates, but not all chordates are vertebrates. Vertebrates are distinguished differently from other chordates by having backbones or spinal columns. All vertebrates have muscular systems that mostly consists of paired masses and, central nervous systems (which is placed inside the backbone). The way of defining a vertebrate is if it has a backbone or spinal cord, a brain case, and an internal skeleton.

Lesson 110, Biology @zbelles

The Great Schism, How Philip II Augustus Was Significant In French History, & The Definition Of An Indulgence

Photo by brittany on Pexels.com

(1) What was the Great Schism? What factors brought it on?

The Great Schism was a significant event in the history of the Medieval Church. The most prominent effect of this event was the division of the Eastern Catholic Church, in the Byzantium Empire from the Roman Catholic Church (in the West). This division still persists to this day. Orthodox Catholicism prevails in the East, and Roman Catholicism is dominant in the West.

What caused this religious division? I can answer this with one word, differences. The number one difference, was the language barrier. The East’s official language was Greek, whereas the West’s dominant language was Latin. Secondly, there were differences in the way liturgies were performed. There was also a controversy between the two, concerning the spiritual significance of the establishment of the Church. The Western papacy argued that Apostle Peter founded their church, and that is why the Western Papacy should hold jurisdiction over all churches. While the East argued back by stating Constantinople was the most powerful city, and that Apostle Andrew founded their Church. The controversy was somewhat vague, but what’s important to remember is that both sides were simply struggling for religious authority.

The beginning of the Great Schism was marked by the event when St. Photius of the East excommunicated the pope of the West. This was due to a conflict. This aggravated the tension between the two Churches. In the 11th century, the animosity between the two grew to the point where Michael Cerularius closed all Western-style churches in Constantinople (East). The division of the Orthodox and Catholic Church became official after the papacy excommunicated Michael Cerularius.

(2) How was Philip II Augustus significant in French history?

Philip II Augustus reigned in France from 1180 to 1223. He was a descendant of the Capetian Dynasty, the successor of the Carolingian Dynasty. Prior to his reign, France’s monarchy system was severely weak. Due to the Viking invasions that invoked the rise of Feudalism. Capetian Kings before him all tried centralizing the monarchy’s power to some extent, but success often failed (or was too slow). Gradually, by dominating fiefs of deceased or unqualified vassals, centralization began to slowly take root again in France. Philip enforced this centralization in the late 13th century when he eradicated the English rule of the Angivin Empire in France.

(4) What is an indulgence?

In Catholic popular piety, indulgences are pious actions you take to reduce, or eliminate, penance for known and confessed sins. This is based on the idea that there are two types of punishment for sin: eternal and temporary. The eternal punishment in hell is for those who do not accept the Christian faith and do not seek to cleanse their sins. Temporary punishment in a place called purgatory is for those who are Christians, are devoted to the faith. This does not guarantee all Christians go to heaven. The only difference is that they have sinned and want to cleanse those sins through confession. Indulgences are just a way to bail yourself out of purgatory, whether entirely or partially. But this doesn’t include “buying” yourself out of purgatory with money, it can only be done through religious actions that are dictated by a bishop after you have confessed your sin to him.

Lesson 110, Western Civilization @zbelles

The Logic Of An Ad

Photo by Prateek Katyal on Pexels.com

Advertisement n. (əd-ˈvər-təz-mənt) is the act or process of advertising something. Which is the action of calling something to the attention of the public. Advertisement has always been used, even from the dawn of man. Take this biblical excerpt for example, Genesis 3:1-6, “¹Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden’?” ²The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, ³but God did say, ‘You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.'” ⁴”You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman. ⁵”For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil. ⁶When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it.” -NIV, BibleGateway.

The serpent was a salesman, in a sense. He was trying to sell the fruit from the tree, that was planted in the middle garden. Eve, knowing what her Father told her, she spoke up and refused right away. Eve not only spoke up, but also gave explanation why she cannot consume the fruit. The serpent, being the clever salesman he is, twists the story. He says that the fruit will not curse you, but have you obtain power. Obtain so much power, that you could become a goddess yourself. Besides, God is truly not letting you eat this fruit because He fears you would over-power Him. If you continue reading Genesis Chapter 3, in the end, Eve and her companion do not attain power. They are cursed with the Fall of man, and are banished from their home. (Well, that was a bad investment.) The serpent advertised the forbidden fruit, sold the fruit to Eve, and she consumed it with her spouse. The serpent was successful with his advertisement.

This comes to show that advertisements, also known as ad’s, were never only produced recently (like a 100 years ago). The example of the serpent and fruit makes it evident otherwise. Although, this shows a bad example of the ad. Ad’s are not evil or sinister, themselves. Advertising is the way of obtaining wealth. For instance, the Silk Road. The Silk Road was an ancient trade route that linked the Western world with the Middle East and Asia. It was a major conduit for trade between the Roman Empire and China. They would trade, with no other than with the skill of advertising. Advertising spruces up the very thing you are trying to sell. Without advertisement, why would anyone want what you are trying to sell? Why would they invest in your product?

The logic of an ad, is simple. Its entire reason of existence, is to get you to have a major desire to buy the product that is being sold to you. For the salesman, they would obtain wealth because of this. Selling and earning money, is the advertisements main goal. Whether their are good intentions behind the ad, or bad ones, that is the goal nevertheless. Ad’s are consistent, repetitive, and are located everywhere. Ad’s are located on the radio, internet, billboards, milk curtains, magazines, etc. Advertisement can tell you which milk to purchase is healthier, what shoes would look better, and so on. Everything that is sold, has a purpose. Advertisement, is the way of helping (considered poor and rich people) earn more wealth. That wealth for the sellers could be through the positives for the costumer, the product for themselves, or money. Without advertisement, I couldn’t say if this society would be better off, or worse. All I know is, advertisement is not evil, and has no purpose with good or evil. Ad’s are tools used by sellers, to sell what they are showing the public. If the product is “evil” or “good,” it is the seller behind the advertisement, who designs it in such a way, that should be described with such vocabulary. Not the advertisement itself.

Lesson 105, Business I @zbelles

The Problems Besetting The Church In The 10th & 11th Centuries, The Events That Took Place During The Conflict Between Pope Gregory VII & Henry IV, & The Meaning of Christendom

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

(1) What were the problems besetting the Church in the tenth and eleventh centuries? What was “moderate reform”?

Lay control was when the King could choose the Pope, bishops, and clergyman. Oddly enough the King was not required to be an actual member of the Church. This meant the King would choose candidates based on their loyalty to him rather than Biblical knowledge or actual experience.

Several Popes and Church officials actively campaigned against lay control, until Pope Gregory VII was finally successful in it’s abolishment in the late-eleventh century. Accomplished by the vastly expanding papal power during a feud with Henry IV of Germany, and the Holy Roman Empire. Previously two reforms had been attempted to end lay control, but only moderate reform proved to be of any success. The moderate reform took place under the guide of Pope Leo IX during the mid-eleventh century. This reform was accomplished by the Collection of 74 Tiles. Which established expanded perimeters of papal power, and required that morally upright men be chosen for the clergy.

(2) Describe the events that took place during the conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV. What was at stake?

In 1073, Pope Gregory assumed the papacy, and soon took a strong stance against lay investiture. Lay investiture was like lay control. Except that when the bishops and abbots were elected, they were bestowed with a scepter, ring, and staff. Pope Gregory found this to be unbiblical. King Henry was not ready to give up this practice. The Pope held a council in 1075, where he demanded that church officials invested in by laymen, be removed from power. The layman investors themselves would also have to be excommunicated. King Henry continued to appoint officials to the Church, despite the firm decision by Gregory.

As a result of his disobedience, Henry was excommunicated and deposed. In 1077, Henry pleaded with the Pope to have his excommunication lifted. Which the Pope eventually agreed to do. Henry then made the poor decision to hunt down and kill those who had personally wronged him. Because of these vicious murders, Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry for a second time. This time around, Henry had the upper hand, and Gregory went into exile. This great conflict greatly changed the relationship between the Church and state forever. Pope Gregory’s actions ended the inappropriate overstep of power by the state over the Church, and allowed the Church to stand independent of government influence.

(3) What was Christendom?

Christendom was an international society of Christian monks who worked to ensure that Christian churches around the world operated according to Scripture. This was accomplished by traveling monks sent from their Monasteries to churches around the world. Christendom can also refer to the global community of Christian majority countries.

Lesson 105, Western Civilization @zbelles

Compare The Ethical Behavior Of Zeus, With The Ethical Teaching Of Jesus

Jesus Vs. Zeus

It is no secret that Zeus was not as righteous as Jesus. At this point, everyone who is even remotely aware of either religion would say that Jesus is morally superior. This is according to our modern and humane standards. Some would disagree with this statement. The issue is, we must decide to whose morals we are comparing them. According to the widely held American morals, Jesus could do no wrong. However, according to Judaism, Jesus committed multiple minor sins. That was going against his own religion, which is the major disconnect between the old and new testament. The Christian and Jewish God provided clear and concise rules (and laws) for their followers to adhere. Zeus did not. Of course, there are many instances where someone did something Zeus did not like, and he punished them for those reasons. These instances of supposed “justice” are not posed as all-mighty laws, but rather retribution for some act. 

When looking at it from a Greek mythological perspective, Zeus was actually morally superior to Jesus. This sounds foolish at first, considering all the awful things Zeus reportedly did, but it really is all about perspective. For instance, male guppies frequently eat their newborn young as they pop out of the female guppy. If a human man today were to eat his child as it came out of his partner, we would all believe him to be a cannibalic loon. As we should, because humans have evolved with a different sense of humane morals, what is right and what is wrong. The point of this analogy is that humans have simply evolved since the days of Zeus’ worship. Therefore perspectives and acceptable behaviors have also evolved. 

From the dawn of man to today, humans have progressed exceptionally far. Some examples are technologically, physically, mentally, and morally. Greek mythology is an older religion, and it formed in a place and era with a different pre-existing culture than Christianity. Greek mythology did not have the time to develop as Christianity did. Though it existed far longer than Christianity, it was not as prevalent for as long, it likely lasted around 1,000 years. Thus, was not able to evolve as much. Christianity has been a dominant religion for almost 2,000 years. Giving it the opportunity to become the religion which laid the foundation for our society’s standards today.

The moral standard to which we hold ourselves is simply the foundation and structure of our society. If it was okay for people to go around raping, murdering, and torturing people the way Zeus did, our society would certainly collapse. Because these actions only produce chaos and demean others. What Jesus taught was morally right from the start. He taught that treating others respectfully and with kindness, will be given a better result than insulting, or using them. Jesus and Zeus were both prominent religious figures in their respective religions. They were both leaders in their faiths, and both frequently taught lessons to their followers. Their differences arise in the lessons they taught and how they taught them. Zeus emphasized his own vendettas, while Jesus converted and preached. Zeus is a faulted god figure, while Jesus is a faultless god figure.

Lesson 105, Western Literature @zbelles

How Water Moves Through The Body Of A Plant

Photo by Min An on Pexels.com

There are three phases by which water cycles through the ecosystem. These are evaporation, condensation, and transpiration. Plants make use of water during the transpiration phase, when rain water penetrates the soil and plant life absorbs the soil solution. What are the details of this mechanism? The first plant organ to initiate transpiration is the root system. Roots have hydrophilic dermal cell walls, meaning they are attracted to water. Hence, the roots soak up the water and minerals dissolved in it from the soil, like a sponge. This water then fills the extracellular space in the roots.

The next step in water transport through a plant’s system, is entering the xylem. The strong, lignified structure which carries water into the plant. However, there is a waxy barrier to the xylem called the Casparian Stripe in the endoderm walls. Water seeps through this “gate”, but once it enters the xylem, it cannot come out. Once the water is inside the xylem, how does it pass up through it? The xylem’s lignified cells, cohesion, adhesion, and root pressure, resists gravity and pushes the water up. To distribute it throughout the plant and to the leaves.
If there are excessive amounts of moisture in the leaves, the stomata and the leave’s pores, will be opened by the stomata’s guard cells. Which decide when to open and close. The water leaves the plant’s internal organs, and eventually evaporates. On the other hand, in some cases the plant is not adequately hydrated. Absorption of water through the roots and the collection of moisture from the air by the leaves’ stomata, work together to acquire water.

It is easy to see why transpiration, the last step, is a vital process in a plant’s life. It is the process of water movement through out a plant and its evaporation. Water is necessary for plants but only a small amount of water taken up by the roots is used for vegetation and metabolism. This step is important because it is a way of obtaining the necessary water and nutrients plants need to survive. Transpiration occurs seven days a week during a plant’s life span, so just by hearing that fact, you can assume that it plays a very imperative part in plants lives.

Lesson 100, Biology @zbelles

The Ninth & Tenth Century Invasions, How Did They Affect Life In The West? & Describe Feudalism And Manorialism

Photo by Brett Sayles on Pexels.com

(1) Describe the 9th and 10th Century invasions. Apart from the physical destruction involved, how did they affect life in the West?

During the Middle Ages in the 9th and 10th century, Scandinavian groups (most commonly known as the Vikings) began invading Europe. Likewise, an Asiatic group called the Magyars and Arabian Muslims, stirred trouble in the West. The effects of these invasions were most serious in France, where vicious warrior Vikings pillaged and destroyed the cities to acquire loot. The city of Paris was invaded several times over a 40 year period. So severe were the Viking raids that the Catholic Church devised a traditional prayer to God, pleading him to save the nation: ”Deliver us from the Norsemen (Vikings)!” France didn’t have much defense against the Vikings because monarchy was weak, and the Franks never had an officially organized army. The Vikings were also sea-faring people, and great ship builders. The French didn’t have this advantage at the time. The raids slowly declined after King Charles the Simple of France separated the territory of Normandy, for the Scandinavians to leave France alone in 911 A.D. Magyar attacks were a little less terrifying, but they still looted villages, churches, and monasteries. They were also responsible for some degree of destruction in Europe. Muslim attacks were similar. Germany was the least affected by any type of invasion, because King Otto the First, organized a good defense system against invasions.

(2) Describe Feudalism and Manorialism.

Feudalism and Manorialism was established as a result of the 9th and 10th century invasions that took place within Europe. The working class of people which we know as the “peasants,” or serfs, responded to these threats by requesting protection from lords. Wealthy men that possessed an abundance of resources and land. The system of manorialism worked like this: the serfs exchanged their labor on the lord’s territory for protection and the necessities of life. This system was by far more effective than monarchy, which was very weak at the time. Sometimes, some lords had more power than the King of the country. He would establish justice, collect taxes, and protect all of his people in his territory. Serfs preferred this way of life much more than being endangered by the invaders. Although, they would be bound to serving the lord for the rest of their lives. Feudalism was also prevalent and often coexisted with manorialism. Lords would hire men called vassals, or knights, to serve him as a defense force against invaders. The vassals were given a piece of land called a fief, and the necessary battle equipment. They too would be committed to serving the lord for the rest of their lives. An oath would be made by knights to the lord, and this later developed into a church ceremony.

Lesson 100, Western Civilization @zbelles

Is It Moral To Grade Exams, So That All Student’s Get C’s? If Not, Is It Moral For The State To Redistribute Incomes?

Photo by Karolina Grabowska on Pexels.com

My short answer for both of these questions is, No. I think that we can all agree that the idea of equally distributing grades on an exam is pretty foolish. Each student studied to achieve a good grade (whatever that standard is), and they were each rewarded for the level of work that they put into the exam. The whole point of grades is to measure each student’s knowledge for that subject. Therefore, the students who pay attention to class, and try to perfect that knowledge, did this so that they would excel on the test. If the grades were distributed evenly, it would be pointless for the students to try at all on their exams, because they would know that they had little-to-no impact on what grade they would actually receive. This system would result in horrible grades for the entire class, and there wouldn’t be much that the teacher could do about it. The grades would be horrible because there wouldn’t be any incentive for the students to work hard. They wouldn’t be recognized or rewarded for their grades. This isn’t moral at all, because the teacher, or the school, is taking away a grade that a student earned and redistributing it around the class.

This same thing happens in countries which redistribute income. It’s the same concept, but real money is at stake, instead of a little letter on a piece of paper that supposedly measures your intelligence. When wealth is redistributed in a society, entrepreneurship, innovation, and practically any form of progress comes to a halt. When people aren’t fairly rewarded for their labor, they’re discouraged and they feel cheated. People don’t want to work as hard anymore, because they realize that it’s mostly pointless. When wealth is equally distributed, there’s no reason for one person to try and work harder than another person. There’s no reason for one entrepreneur to try and make his product better than the other entrepreneur’s, because he knows that he won’t be rewarded. Like I said, this causes innovation to stop, and the society starts to collapse. Not only is redistributing income impractical, it’s immoral, and basically a legal version of theft. Taking someone’s earnings from them and giving them to somebody else, is immoral and unfair.

When people aren’t rewarded fairly for their work and their commitment, there’s no reason for them to keep working. At the least, there’s no reason for them to try and to strive for better. This applies to every area where rewards or compensation is given out. This includes school, work, chores, and essentially, everything. Is it moral to grade exams, so that all student’s get C’s? If not, is it moral for the state to redistribute incomes? No, it’s not moral for the state to redistribute wealth, because it discourages entrepreneurship and hard work.

Lesson 100, Business I @zbelles